Banner image with logo
Banner Egret image

Mosquito Impoundments

Mosquito control impoundments are areas of salt marsh or mangrove forest that have been diked to allow control of water levels for purposes of mosquito control. Within the dikes, perimeter ditches are flooded artificially in order to control breeding and reproduction of salt marsh mosquitoes without the use of pesticides. Florida's mangroves and salt marshes have historically been problem areas in one important respect: they are preferred breeding habitat for salt marsh mosquitoes (Ochlerotatus taeniorrhynchus and O. sollicitans). These mosquitoes are an important nuisance species that affect the health of humans and domestic animals. Salt marsh mosquitoes do not reproduce by laying their eggs in standing water. Rather, they deposit eggs in the moist soils of high marsh above the water line in tidal wetlands (Provost 1976). Eggs will remain dormant, often for long periods of time, until water levels rise in response to rains or tides.

Eggs hatch in the water and undergo several larval stages before developing into adult mosquitoes within 5 days. In the vicinity of the Indian River Lagoon, concerted efforts aimed at controlling salt marsh mosquitoes began in the mid-1920s (Platt et al. 1943) with construction of miles of hand-dug, parallel ditches. These efforts were not highly successful because of the heavy maintenance required to maintain the ditches, and because tidal effects in the ditched areas were generally of such low amplitude that little mosquito control was effected (Rey and Rutledge 2001).

In the 193's field experiments demonstrated that controlling water levels through impoundment would provide source reduction of mosquito populations by effectively controlling mosquito reproduction (Hull and Dove 1939). However, this experimental program was abandoned as water losses within the impoundment through seepage and evaporation became problematic. Attention then turned toward the use of pesticides such as DDT. However, by the 1950s, concerns over pesticide resistance in insects began to emerge, and the focus of mosquito control again shifted back to source reduction.

The first impoundments in Florida were built in Brevard County in 1954, with other counties soon following. By the 1970's, in excess of 40,000 acres of Florida's coastal wetlands had been impounded (Rey and Kain 1990). The majority of impoundments were constructed at the mean high water level and then flooded year round, closed off from adjacent estuarine waters. Some, however, were allowed to drain during the winter months, but were flooded again as mosquito breeding season approached.

Negative effects of closed impoundments:

Although impoundment for mosquito control is an effective method of controlling mosquito populations, there are often severe environmental impacts on impounded wetlands isolated from adjacent estuaries. Particularly important are issues of water quality degradation, isolation of important fishery species from critical nursery habitats, interruption of nutrient flow between wetlands and estuarine waters, creation of unnaturally high water levels, and hypersaline conditions that may develop in closed impoundments when evaporation of water occurs. Any negative changes in any of these physical parameters may lead to the elimination of vegetation from such areas (Rey and Rutledge 2001).

Water levels:

Excessively high water levels brought on by overflooding impoundments eliminated some species from salt marsh and mangrove communities altogether. While only a thin film of water is enough to prevent oviposition by salt marsh mosquitoes; impoundments are typically flooded to depths of 15 - 50 cm above the surface to compensate for evaporation effects (Rey et al. 1991). In closed impoundments, this practice eliminated some species such as saltwort (Batis maritima), and glasswort (Salicornia bigelovii, and Salicornia virginica), and also impacted black mangroves due to their short pneumatophores not being able to withstand prolonged flooding (Rey and Rutledge 2001).

Water quality:

Closed impoundments showed significant changes in both water quality and soil chemistry. In many areas, isolation of flooded impoundments resulted in decreased dissolved oxygen concentrations and increases in both nitrogen and sulfide concentrations in soils. Some impoundments flooded by use of artesian wells showed ecological turnovers from having communities composed of predominantly halophytic species, to communities characteristic of fresh water habitats. Other impoundments were subject to hypersaline conditions when estuarine waters were pumped in to flood them during warm summer months. Because these impoundments were closed to adjacent waters, lack of flushing and evaporation resulted in extremely high salinities, which caused local extinctions of some species (Rey and Rutlege 2001).

Effects on fish and invertebrates:

Fish species were greatly affected by closed impoundments, with numbers of some species being significantly reduced in species that utilized salt marsh or mangrove areas as nursery grounds (Harrington and Harrington 1961, Snelson 1976, Gilmore et al. 1982, Rey et al 1990). Tarpon (Megalops atlanticus), ladyfish (Elops saurus), common snook (Centropomus undecimalis), mullet (Mugil cephalus), and other species important to commercial and recreation fisheries were adversely impacted by closed impoundments. Marine invertebrates were also impacted by isolation of impounded wetlands, with biodiversity and species abundance changing dramatically in some areas. In some areas, the invertebrate community became more characteristic of freshwater wetlands than marine or estuarine wetlands (Brockmeyer et al. 1997).

Nutrient flow:

In closed impoundments, natural patterns of nutrient flow are interrupted between mangrove areas and adjacent waters. In unaltered systems, nutrients from mangrove leaf fall, which are decomposed into particulate and dissolved forms, are utilized in a variety of ways by many different organisms as mangroves are flushed by tides. In closed impoundments, however, nutrients are never flushed from mangrove areas because there is no connection to estuarine waters, and thus remain confined within impoundments.

Improved Impoundment Strategies:

An improved strategy for impoundments was experimented with as early as the mid-1960s. This involved seasonal flooding of impoundments during peak mosquito breeding season. For the remainder of the year, impoundments were opened via culverts penetrating the dike so that water levels within the impoundment could fluctuate naturally with tides. In 1974, seasonal impoundment was combined with active water management. This strategy of allowing for impoundments to be adequately flushed by tides not only controlled salt marsh mosquitoes, but also helped to retain black mangroves and other vegetation, and allowed the return of juvenile fishes to nursery areas unavailable to them in closed impoundments. This management strategy is currently referred to as Rotational Impoundment Management (RIM).

Under RIM, estuaries retain many of their natural functions, and their primary productivity can rival that of unaltered wetlands (Lahmann 1998, Rey et al. 1990b). Culverts remain open between the impoundment and the estuary from October to May to allow water exchange and use of impoundments by transient fish species and invertebrates. Then, during the summer months, culverts are closed and impoundments flooded to the minimum levels needed to prevent oviposition in salt marsh mosquitoes. Low areas of the surrounding dike, called spillways, insure that water levels do not exceed prescribed levels, thus preventing injury to vegetation. RIM has proven to be an effective strategy for controlling mosquitoes while minimizing serious environmental impacts to estuaries. Data from Rey et al. (1991) shows that RIM is currently the most commonly employed management strategy in 3 of the 5-counties adjacent to the Indian River Lagoon. St. Lucie County has 1,371 hectares (ha) (3386.4 acres) of wetlands under RIM, Brevard County has 1,037 ha (2561.4 acres), and Indian River County has 448 ha (1106.5 acres).

Select a highlighted link below to learn more about that species:

Species Name Common Name Habitat Useage

Mangrove Plants:

Acrostichum danaeifoliumGiant Leather Fern
Avicennia germinansBlack Mangrove Upper intertidal
Batis maritimaSaltwort, Turtleweed
Borrichia frutescensBushy Seaoxeye
Casuarina equisetifoliaAustralian Beefwood, Australian Pine, Beach She-oak,
Conocarpus erectaButtonwood High intertidal, scrub
Halodule wrightiiShoal Grass
Halophila decipiensCaribbean Seagrass, Paddle Grass
Halophila engelmanniiEngelmann's Seagrass, Star Grass
Halophila johnsoniiJohnson's Seagrass
Juncus roemerianusBlack Needle Rush
Laguncularia racemosaWhite Mangrove Higher intertidal
Limonium carolinianumSea Lavender
Melaleuca quinquenerviaCajeput, Melaleuca, Paperbark, Punk Tree
Monarda punctataSpotted Beebalm
Rhizophora mangleAmerican Mangrove, Mangrove, Red Mangrove Lower and middle intertidal
Ruppia maritimaWidgeon Grass
Salicornia bigeloviiDwarf Saltwort
Salicornia virginicaPerrenial Glasswort
Schinus terebinthifoliusBrazilian Pepper-tree, Brazilian Peppertree, Christmas
Berry, Christmasberry, Faux Poivrier, Florida Holly, Warui
Suaeda linearisSea Blite
Suaeda maritimaHerbaceous Seepweed
Syringodium filiformeManatee Grass
Thalassia testudinumTurtle Grass
Verbesina virginicaWhite Crownbeard

Mangrove Algae, Diatoms, and Other Protists:

Acanthophora spiciferaSpiny Seaweed
Anacystis montanaCyanobacteria
Anadyomene spp.Green alga
Caulerpa spp.Green alga
Caulerpa sertularioidesGreen Feather Alga
Chaetoceros spp.Diatom
Chaetomorpha linumGreen alga
Cladophoropsis membranaceaGreen alga
Cryptoperidiniopsis spp.Dinoflagellates
Derbesia vaucheriaeformisGreen alga
Enteromorpha spp.Green algae
Gonyaulax monilata
Gracilaria spp.Red alga
Gymnodinium pulchellumDinoflagellate
Halimeda discoideaGreen alga
Hypnea spp.Red algae
Lyngbya luteaCyanobacteria
Nitzschia spp.Diatoms
Paralia spp.Diatoms
Phormidium crosbyanumCyanobacteria
Polysiphonia spp.Red algae
Scrippsiella subsalsaDinoflagellate
Skeletonema costatumDiatom
Spirulina spp.Cyanobacteria
Thalassiosira spp.Diatoms
Ulva spp.Green algae

Mangrove Animals:

Abudefduf saxatilisAsan, Badret, Castagnole, Castanheta, Chauffet Soleil, Pesce
Damigella, Petaca Rayada, Pintano, Sargento, Sergeant Major
Acartia tonsaCalanoid copepod
Acetes americanusAviu Shrimp
Achirus lineatusLined Sole
Acteocina canaliculataChanneled Barrel-bubble
Aiptasia pallidaBrown Anemone, Glass Anemone, Pale Anemone
Ajaia ajaiaRoseate Spoonbill
Alligator mississippiensisAmerican Alligator
Alpheus armillatusBanded Snapping Shrimp
Alpheus heterochaelisBigclaw Snapping Shrimp
Amygdalum papyriumAtlantic Paper Mussel
Anachis semiplicata
Anas spp.Dabbling ducks
Anas acutaNorthern Pintail
Anas americanaAmerican Wigeon
Anas clypeataNorthern Shoveler
Anas creccaGreen-winged Teal
Anas discorsBlue-winged Teal
Anas fulvigulaMottled Duck
Anchoa cubanaCuban Anchovy
Anchoa hepsetusStriped Anchovy
Anchoa lyolepisDusky Anchovy
Anchoa mitchilliBay Anchovy
Anguilla rostrataAmerican Eel
Anhinga anhingaAnhinga
Anomalocardia auberianaPointed Venus
Apalone feroxFlorida Softshell Turtle
Aratus pisoniiMangrove Tree Crab
Arca imbricataMossy Ark
Archosargus probatocephalusConvict Fish, Sheepshead, Sheepshead Bream, Sheepshead
Archosargus rhomboidalisSea Bream
Ardea albaGreat Egret
Ardea herodiasGreat Blue Heron
Arius felis
Ascidia curvataCurved tunicate
Ascidia nigraBlack Solitary Tunicate
Assiminea spp.
Astyris lunataLunar Dovesnail
Atherinomorus stipesHardhead silverside
Aythya affinisLesser Scaup
Aythya americanaRedhead
Aythya collarisRing-necked Duck
Aythya valisineriaCanvasback
Bagre marinusBigmouth Catfish, Gafftop, Gafftopsail Catfish
Bairdiella chrysouraSilver Perch
Balanus eburneusIvory Barnacle
Bathygobius curacaoNotchtongue Goby
Bathygobius soporatorFrillfin Goby
Bittiolum variumGrass Cerith
Boonea impressaImpressed Odostome
Botryllus planusRoyal Tunicate
Brachidontes exustusScorched Mussel
Branchiomma nigromaculataBlack spotted fanworm
Brevoortia smithiYellowfin Menhaden
Brevoortia tyrannusAtlantic Menhaden
Bubulcus ibisBuff-backed Heron, Cattle Egret, Elephant Bird, Hippopotomus
Egret., Rhinoceros Egret
Bucephala albeolaBufflehead
Bulla striataCommon Atlantic Bubble, Striate Bubble
Bunodosoma cavernataWarty Sea Anemone
Bunodosoma granuliferumRed Warty Sea Anemone
Bursatella leachii pleiiRagged Seahare
Busycon contrariumLightning Whelk
Butorides virescensGreen heron
Calidris spp.Sandpipers
Calidris alpinaDunlin
Calidris mauriWestern Sandpiper
Calidris minutillaLeast Sandpiper
Callinectes bocourtiBocourt Swimming Crab
Callinectes ornatusOrnate Blue Crab
Callinectes sapidusBlue Crab
Callinectes similisLesser Blue Crab
Capitella spp.Polychaete worm
Caranx hipposCrevalle Jack
Carcharhinus leucasBull Shark
Cardinalis cardinalisNorthern Cardinal
Cardisoma guanhumiBlue Land Crab, Great Land Crab, White Land Crab
Carditamera floridanaBroad-ribbed Carditid
Cassiopea frondosaUpside-down jellyfish
Cassiopea xamachanaUpsidedown Jellyfish
Catoptrophorus semipalmatus
Centropomus parallelusFat Snook
Centropomus pectinatusTarpon Snook
Centropomus undecimalisCommon Snook, Robalo, Thin Snook
Centropristis philadelphicaRock Sea Bass
Ceratozona squalidaEastern Surf Chiton
Cerithidea scalariformisLadder Hornsnail
Cerithium muscarumFlyspeck Cerith
Chaetodipterus faberAtlantic Spadefish
Charadrius semipalmatusSemipalmated plover
Charadrius vociferusKilldeer
Chasmodes bosquianusStriped Blenny
Chasmodes saburraeFlorida Blenny
Chelonia mydasGreen Sea Turtle
Chicoreus floriferFlowery Lace Murex
Chondrilla nuculaChicken liver sponge
Citharichthys spilopterusBay Whiff, Lenguado Pardo
Clavelina oblongaOblong tunicate
Clavelina pictaPainted tunicate
Coccyzus minorMangrove cuckoo
Columba leucocephala
Corophium spp.Amphipod
Costoanachis avaraGreedy Dovesnail
Crassostrea virginicaAmerican Oyster, Atlantic Oyster, Common Oyster, Eastern
Oyster, Virginia Oyster
Crepidula convexaConvex Slipper Snail
Crepidula planaEastern White Slipper Shell, Eastern White Slipper Snail
Crocodylus acutusAmerican Crocodile
Cymatium pileareHairy Triton
Cynoscion nebulosusSpotted Seatrout
Cynoscion regalisWeakfish
Cyprinodon variegatusSheepshead Minnow
Cypselurus heterurus
Dasyatis sabinaAtlantic Stingray
Dendroica discolor paludicolaFlorida prairie warbler
Dendroica petechia gundlachiCuban yellow warbler
Diapterus auratusIrish Pompano
Didemnum conchyliatumWhite spongy tunicate
Diodora cayenensisCayenne Keyhole Limpet
Diopatra spp.Plumed worm
Diplodus argenteusSilver Porgy
Diplodus holbrookiiSpottail Pinfish
Donax variabilisVariable Coquina
Dormitator maculatusFat Sleeper
Drymarchon corais couperi
Ecteinascidia turbinataMangrove Tunicate
Egretta caeruleaLittle Blue Heron
Egretta rufescensMuffle-jaw Egret, Peale’s Egret, Plume Bird, Reddish
Egretta thulaSnowy Egret
Egretta tricolorLouisiana Heron, Tricolored Heron
Eleotris pisonisSpinycheek Sleeper
Elops saurusLadyfish
Epinephelus itajaraGoliath Grouper, Jewfish
Epinephelus morioRed Grouper
Eretmochelys imbricataHawksbill Sea Turtle
Erotelis smaragdusEmerald Sleeper
Eucinostomus argenteusSilver Mojarra, Spotfin Mojarra
Eucinostomus gulaSilver Jenny
Eucinostomus harengulusTidewater mojarra
Eucinostomus melanopterusFlagfin Mojarra
Eudocimus albusWhite Ibis
Eugerres plumieriStriped Mojarra
Eurypanopeus depressusDepressed Mud Crab, Flatback Mud Crab
Eurytium limosumBroadback Mud Crab
Evorthodus lyricusLyre Goby
Falco peregrinusPeregrine Falcon
Fasciolaria lilium hunteriaBanded Tulip
Felis rufusBobcat
Floridichthys carpioGoldspotted Killifish, Ocellated Killifish
Fundulus cingulatusBanded topminnow
Fundulus confluentusMarsh Killifish
Fundulus grandisGulf Killifish
Fundulus seminolisSeminole killifish
Gambusia affinisMosquitofish, Western Mosquitofish
Gambusia holbrookiEastern Mosquitofish
Gambusia rhizophoraeMangrove gambusia
Gerres cinereusYellowfin Mojarra
Geukensia demissaRibbed Horsemussel, Ribbed Mussel
Gobiesox strumosusSkilletfish
Gobioides broussonnetiiViolet Goby
Gobionellus boleosoma
Gobionellus oceanicusHighfin goby
Gobionellus smaragdusEmerald goby
Gobiosoma boscNaked Goby
Gobiosoma macrodonTiger goby
Gobiosoma robustumCode Goby
Goniopsis cruentataMangrove Root Crab
Grandidierella bonnieroidesAmphipod
Haemulon chrysargyreumSmallmouth Grunt
Haemulon parraSailor's Choice
Haemulon plumieri
Haemulon sciurusBluestriped Grunt
Haliaeetus leucocephalusBald Eagle
Haminoea antillarumAntilles Glassy-bubble
Harengula jaguanaScaled Sardine
Hemiramphus balaoBalao
Henrya morrisoniGastropod
Hippocampus erectusCaballito De Mar, Hippocampe Rayé, Lined Seahorse,
Northern Seahorse, Spotted Seahorse
Hippocampus zosteraeDwarf Seahorse, Pygmy Seahorse
Hippolyte spp.Broken-back shrimp
Hydroides spp.Feather duster worms
Hypoatherina harringtonensisReef Silverside
Ircinia strobilinaBumpy Ball Sponge, Cake Sponge, Pillow Stinking Sponge
Ischadium recurvumHooked Mussel
Isognomon alatusFlat Tree Oyster, Flat Tree-oyster
Isognomon bicolorBicolor Purse-oyster
Labidesthes sicculusBrook Silverside
Lagodon rhomboidesPinfish
Lasiurus spp.Bat
Leander tenuicornisBrown Glass Shrimp
Leiostomus xanthurusChub, Flat Croaker, Golden Croaker, Goody, Jimmy, Roach,
Silver Gudgeon, Spot, Spot Croaker
Lepidochelys kempiiKemp's Ridley Sea Turtle
Lepisosteus osseusLongnose Gar
Libinia dubiaLongnose Spider Crab
Ligia exoticaWharf Roach
Limnodromus griseusShort-billed Dowitcher
Limulus polyphemusAtlantic Horseshoe Crab, Horseshoe Crab, King Crab
Littorina anguliferaAngulate Periwinkle, Mangrove Periwinkle
Littorina irrorataMarsh Periwinkle
Lobotes surinamensisAtlantic Tripletail, Tripletail
Lolliguncula brevisAtlantic Brief Squid
Lontra canadensisRiver Otter
Lophogobius cyprinoidesCrested Goby
Lucania parvaRainwater Killifish
Lupinoblennius nicholsiHighfin Blenny
Lutjanus analisKing Snapper, Mutton Fish, Mutton Snapper
Lutjanus apodusSchoolmaster, Schoolmaster Snapper
Lutjanus griseusBlack Snapper, Gray Snapper, Lowyer, Mango Snapper, Mangrove
Lutjanus jocuDog Snapper
Lutjanus synagrisCandy Striper, Lane Snapper, Rainbow Snapper
Lynx rufusBobcat
Lyonsia floridanaFlorida Lyonsia
Macrobrachium acanthurusCinnamon River Shrimp
Malaclemys terrapin rhizophorarumMangrove diamondback terrapin
Malaclemys terrapin tequestaDiamondback Terrapin
Martesia striataStriate Piddock
Megaceryle alcyonBelted Kingfisher
Megalops atlanticusTarpon
Melampus bidentatusEastern Melampus
Melampus coffeusCoffee Bean Snail, Coffee Melampus
Melongena coronaCrown Conch
Membras martinicaRough Silverside
Menidia beryllinaTidewater Silverside
Menidia peninsulaePenninsula Silverside
Menippe mercenariaFlorida Stone Crab, Stone Crab
Menippe nodifronsCuban stone crab
Menticirrhus americanusSouthern Kingfish
Mephitis mephitisSpotted skunk
Mercenaria mercenariaCherrystone, Hard Clam, Littleneck, Northern Quahog
Mergus cucullatusHooded Merganser
Mergus serratorRed-breasted Merganser
Microgobius gulosusClown Goby
Micropogonias undulatusAtlantic Croaker
Mola molaOcean Sunfish
Molgula occidentalisSandy sea squirt, Western sea squirt
Monacanthus hispidusPlanehead Filefish
Mugil cephalusBlack Mullet, Flathead Mullet, Gray Mullet, Sea Mullet,
Striped Mullet
Mugil curemaSilver Mullet, White Mullet
Mycteria americanaWood Stork
Mycteroperca microlepisCharcoal Belly, Gag, Gag Grouper, Velvet Rockfish
Myiarchus crinitusGreat Crested Flycatcher
Myrophis punctatusSpeckled Worm Eel
Mytilopsis leucophaetaDark Falsemussel
Nassarius vibexBruised Nassa
Neotoma floridanaEastern Wood Rat
Nereis succineaClam Worm
Neritina clenchiClench's nerite
Neritina virgineaVirgin Nerite
Nerodia clarkiiSalt Marsh Snake
Nerodia fasciata compressicauda
Noetia ponderosaPonderous Ark
Odocoileus virginianesWhite-tailed Deer
Odostomia engoniaGastropod
Ogilbia cayorumKey Brotula
Oligoplites saurusLeatherjacket
Onuphis spp.Onuphis worm, Parchment tube worm
Ophichthus gomesiiShrimp Eel
Opisthonema oglinumAtlantic Thread Herring
Opsanus betaGulf toadfish
Orchestia spp.Amphipod
Orthopristis chrysopteraPigfish
Oxyura jamaicensisRuddy Duck
Pachygrapsus gracilisDark Shore Crab
Pachygrapsus transversusMottled Shore Crab
Palaemonetes spp.Grass shrimp
Pandion haliaetusOsprey
Panopeus herbstiiAtlantic Mud Crab
Panulirus argusCaribbean Spiny Lobster, Florida Lobster, Rock Lobster,
Spiny Lobster
Parablennius marmoreusSeaweed Blenny
Paraclinus fasciatusBanded blenny
Parastarte triquetraBrown gemclam
Pelecanus erythrorhynchosAmerican White Pelican
Pelecanus occidentalisAmerican Brown Pelican, Brown Pelican, Common Pelican
Penaeus aztecusBrown Shrimp
Penaeus duorarumNorthern Pink Shrimp, Pink Shrimp
Penaeus setiferusNorthern White Shrimp, White Shrimp
Perophora viridisGreen colonial tunicate
Petaloconchus variansVariable Wormsnail
Phalacrocorax auritusDouble-crested Cormorant
Phallusia nigraSolitary Black Tunicate
Phrynelox scaber
Pisania pusioMiniature trumpet triton, Pisa snail
Plagusia depressaSpray Crab
Planorbella duryiSeminole Rams-horn
Planorbella scalareMesa Rams-horn
Plegadis falcinellusGlossy Ibis
Pluvialis squatarolaBlack-bellied Plover
Podilymbus podicepsPied-billed Grebe
Poecilia latipinnaSailfin Molly, Topote Velo Negro
Pogonias cromisBlack Drum, Corvina Negra, Tambor Negro
Polyclinum constellatumStarred gelatinous tunicate
Polygyra spp.Flatcoils
Polygyra cereolusSouthern Flatcone
Prionotus tribulusBighead Searobin
Procambarus alleniCrayfish
Procyon lotorRaccoon
Rallus longirostrisClapper Rail
Rhithropanopeus harrisiiHarris Mud Crab
Rivulus marmoratus
Sagitta spp.Arrow worm
Sardinella auritaRound Sardinella, Spanish Sardine
Sayella crosseanaGastropod
Sciaenops ocellatusCorvineta Ocelada, Red Drum
Scorpaena brasiliensisBarbfish
Selene vomerLookdown
Sesarma cinereum
Sesarma curacaoenseMangrove Marsh Crab
Sesarma ricordi
Sigmodon hispidus littoralisFlorida Cotton Rat
Sphaeroma spp.Wood-boring crustaceans
Sphenia antillensisAntillean Sphenia
Sphoeroides nephelusBotete Fruta, Southern Puffer, Tamboril Sureño
Sphoeroides spengleriBandtail Puffer
Sphoeroides testudineusBotete Sapo, Checkered Puffer, Tamboríl Rayado
Sphyraena barracudaBarracuda, Great Barracuda, Picúa
Sphyraena borealisNorthern Sennet
Spindalis zenaStripe-headed tanager
Spirorbis spp.Serpulid worm
Stellatoma stellataGastropod
Stenonereis martiniPolychaete worm
Strongylura notata
Strongylura timucuTimucu
Styela plicataPleated Sea Squirt, Rough Sea Squirt
Sylvilagus floridanusEastern Cottontail
Sylvilagus palustris paludicolaMarsh Rabbit
Synalpheus fritzmuelleriSpeckled Snapping Shrimp
Syngnathus louisianaeChain Pipefish, Pez Pipa Cadena
Syngnathus scovelliGulf Pipefish, Pez Pipa Del Golfo
Synodus foetensInshore Lizardfish
Tagelus plebeiusStout Tagelus
Taphromysis bowmaniMysid shrimp
Tedania ignisFire Sponge
Tellina tampaensisTampa Tellin
Thais spp.Rocksnails
Tilapia melanotheron
Trachinotus falcatusPámpano, Pámpano Palometa, Permit
Trichechus manatusFlorida manatee
Trichiurus lepturusAtlantic Cutlassfish
Trididemnum savigniiSavigni's encrusting tunicate
Trinectes maculatusHogchoker
Tringa flavipesLesser Yellowlegs
Tringa melanoleucaGreater Yellowlegs
Truncatella pulchellaBeautiful Truncatella
Turritella spp.Turretsnails
Tursiops truncatusBottlenose Dolphin, Bottlenosed Dolphin, Common Bottlenose
Dolphin, Delfín Tonina
Tylosurus acusAgujon
Tylosurus crocodilusHoundfish
Tyrannus caudifasciatusLoggerhead kingbird
Tyrannus dominicensisGray Kingbird
Uca pugilator
Uca rapax
Uca speciosaLongfinger Fiddler
Uca thayeri
Urocyon cinereoargenteusGray fox
Urosalpinx cinereaAmerican Tingle, American Whelk Tingle, Atlantic Oyster
Ursus americanusBlack Bear
Vallentinia gabriellaeHitch-hiking Jellyfish
Vireo altiloquusBlack-whiskered Vireo
Vitrinella floridanaFlorida Vitrinella

Further Reading

Brockmeyer, R.E., J.R. Rey, R.W. Virnstein, R.G. Gilmore, Jr., and L. Earnest. 1997. Rehabilitation of impounded estuarine wetlands by hydrologic reconnection to the Indian River Lagoon, Florida. Journal of Wetlands
Ecology and Management. 4:93-109. 

Carlton, J.M. 1975. A guide to common salt marsh and mangrove vegetation. Florida Marine Resources Publications, No. 6. Carlton, 1977. A survey of selected coastal vegetation communities of Florida. Florida Marine Research Publications, No. 30.

Feller, I. C., Ed. 1996. Mangrove Ecology Workshop Manual. A Field Manual for the Mangrove Education and Training Programme for Belize. Marine Research Center, University College of Belize, Calabash Cay, Turneffe Islands. Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC.

Gilmore, R.G. Jr., D.W. Cooke, and C.J. Donahue. 1982. A comparison of the fish populations and habitat in open and closed salt marsh impoundments in east central Florida. Northeast Gulf Science, 5:25-37.

Gilmore, R.G. Jr. and S.C. Snedaker. 1993. Chapter 5: Mangrove Forests. In: W.H. Martin, S.G. Boyce and A.C. Echternacht, eds. Biodiversity of the Southeastern United States: Lowland Terrestrial Communities. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Publishers. New York, NY. 502 pps.

Harrington, R.W. and E.S. Harrington. 1961. Food selection among fishes invading a high subtropical salt marsh; from onset of flooding through the progress of a mosquito brood. Ecology, 42:646-666.

Heald, E.J. and W.E. Odum. 1970. The contribution of mangrove swamps to Florida fisheries. Proceedings Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute, 22:130-135.

Heald, E.J., M.A. Roessler, and G.L. Beardsley. 1979. Litter production in a southwest Florida black mangrove community. Proceedings of the Florida Anti-Mosquito Association 50th Meeting. Pp. 24-33.

Hull, J.B. and W.E. Dove. 1939. Experimental diking for control of sand fly and mosquito breeding in Florida saltwater marshes. Journal of Economic Entomology, 32:309-312.

Lahmann, E. 1988. Effects of different hydrologic regimes on the productivity of Rhizophora mangle L. A case study of mosquito control impoundments in Hutchinson Island, St. Lucie County, Florida. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida.

Lewis, R.R., III, R.G. Gilmore, Jr., D.W. Crewz, and W.E. Odum. 1985. Mangrove habitat and fishery resources of Florida. In: W. Seaman, Jr. (ed.). Florida Aquatic Habitat and Fishery Resources. American Fisheries Society, Florida Chapter, Kissimmee, FL.

Lugo, A.E. and S.C. Snedaker. 1974. The ecology of mangroves. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 5:39-64.

Lugo, A.E., M. Sell, and S.C. Snedaker. 1976. Mangrove ecosystem analysis. In: Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology, B.C. Patten, ed. Pp. 113-145. Academic Press, New York, NY.

Odum, W.E. and C.C. McIvor. 1990. Mangroves. In: Ecosystems of Florida, RL. Myers and J.J. Ewel, eds. Pp. 517 - 548. University of Central Florida Press, Orlando, FL.

Odum, W.E., C.C. McIvor, and T.J. Smith III. 1982. The ecology of the mangroves of south Florida: a community profile. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, FWS/OBS-81-24.

Odum, W.E. and E.J. Heald. 1972. Trophic analyses of an estuarine mangrove community. Bulletin of Marine Science, 22(3):671-738.

Onuf, C.P., J.M. Teal, and I. Valiela. 1977. Interactions of nutrients, plant growth and herbivory in a mangrove ecosystem. Ecology, 58:514-526.

Platts, N.G., S.E. Shields, and J.B. Hull. 1943. Diking and pumping for control of sand flies and mosquitoes in Florida salt marshes. Journal of Economic Entomology, 36:409-412.

Pool, D.J., A.E. Lugo, and S.C. Snedaker.1975. Litter production in mangrove forests of southern Florida and Puerto Rico. Proceeding of the International Symposium on Biological Management of Mangroves, G. Walsh, S. Snedaker and H. Teas, eds. Pp. 213-237. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, FL.

Provost, M.W. 1976. Tidal datum planes circumscribing salt marshes. Bulletin of Marine Science, 26:558-563.

Rey, J.R. and T. Kain. 1990. Guide to the salt marsh impoundments of Florida. Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory Publications, Vero Beach, FL.

Rey, J.R., J. Schaffer, D. Tremain, R.A. Crossman, and T. Kain. 1990. Effects of reestablishing tidal connections in two impounded tropical marshes on fishes and physical conditions. Wetlands. 10:27-47.

Rey, J.R. M.S. Peterson, T. Kain, F.E. Vose, and R.A. Crossman. 1990. Fish populations and physical conditions in ditched and impounded marshes in east-central Florida. N.E. Gulf Science, 11:163-170.

Rey, J.R., R.A. Crossman, M. Peterson, J. Shaffer and F. Vose. 1991. Zooplankton of impounded marshes and shallow areas of a subtropical lagoon. Florida Scientist, 54:191-203.

Rey, J.R., R.A. Crossman, T. Kain, and J. Schaffer. 1991. Surface water chemistry of wetlands and the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA. Journal of the Florida Mosquito Control Association, 62:25-36.

Rey, J.R., T. Kain and R. Stahl. 1991. Wetland impoundments of east-central Florida. Florida Scientist, 54:33-40.

Rey, J.R. and C.R. Rutledge, 2001. Mosquito Control Impoundments. Document # ENY-648, Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available on the Internet at :

Simberloff, D.S. 1983. Mangroves. In: Costa Rican Natural History. D.H. Janzen, ed. Pp. 273-276. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.

Snedaker, S.C. 1989. Overview of mangroves and information needs for Florida Bay. Bulletin of Marine Science, 44(1):341-347. 

Snedaker, S. C., and A.E. Lugo. 1973. The role of mangrove ecosystems in the maintenance of environmental quality and a high productivity of desirable fisheries. Final report to the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife in fulfillment of Contract no. 14-16-008-606. Center for Aquatic Sciences, Gainesville, FL.

Snelson, F.F. 1976. A study of a diverse coastal ecosystem on the Atlantic coast of Florida, Vol. 1., Ichthyological Studies. NGR-10-019-004 NASA, Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

Thayer, G.W., D.R. Colby, and W.F. Hettler Jr. 1987. Utilization of the red mangrove prop roots habitat by fishes in South Florida. Marine Ecology progress Series, 35:25-38.

Tomlinson, P.B. 1986. The botany of mangroves. Cambridge University Press, London.

Waisel, Y. 1972. The biology of halophytes. Academic Press, New York, NY.


Report by: K. Hill, Smithsonian Marine Station
Submit additional information, photos or comments to: