Common names: Bumpy Ball Sponge, more...
Synonyms: Dysidicinia longispina Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864, more...
Species Description: The bumpy ball sponge, Ircinia strobilina is massive, often with stubby cylinders wider than high (Wiedenmayer 1977). Specimens growing in strong currents usually become elongate in a direction perpendicular to the current, with a longitudinal apical crest bearing the oscules. Most specimens are cake or pillow shaped, as the two common names indicate. Live individuals are grey to black externally, with drab yellow at the base and in the choanosome. Their consistency is tough and spongy. The surface is coarsely conulose. Thick, blunt conules 3-8 mm high and 3-8 mm apart are often tipped in white and connected by ridges, especially near the base where they are lower and farther apart (Wiedenmayer 1977, Gammill 1997). The oscules are 2-5 mm in diameter, scattered in groups on the top plane, and often very crowded.
Potentially Misidentified Species: The bumpy ball sponge resembles the starry stinker sponge, I. felix. Both species have similar ectosomes and choanosomes (Wiedenmayer 1977). However, the fibers and the meshwork in the choanosome of I. felix are coarser, and connective fibers are rare.
Habitat & Regional Occurrence: I. strobilina occurs from 10 to 100 feet, mostly in inner-reef areas and in lagoons among beds of the turtle grass, Thalassia testudinum (Kaplan 1988). The geographic range of the bumpy ball sponge extends from Florida to the Bahamas and throughout the Caribbean to Brazil (Kaplan 1988, Gammill 1997). In the Bahamas, this species is found on rocky substrate, where it grows successfully on the bottoms of rocky reef channels in strong currents (Wiedenmayer 1977).
Size & Growth: The diameter of I. strobilina ranges from 5 cm to over 1 m (Wiedenmayer 1977). Individuals tend to grow faster vertically than horizontally, with most growth occurring when the specimens are small (Hoppe 1988). Assuming constant growth rates, I. strobilina can show an annual increase in volume of approximately 11%.
Abundance: The abundance of I. strobilina in the IRL is undocumented, but densities of up to 19.3 individuals per 100 m2 have been documented for populations in the Bahamas (Wiedenmayer 1977).
Reproduction & Embryology: Reproduction of the bumpy ball sponge in the IRL is undocumented. However, I. strobilina exhibits reproductive activity year round on the reefs of Curaçao (Hoppe 1988b). Spermatic cysts are produced to varying degrees throughout the year, while oocytes and larvae have been observed from September to April, for an annual breeding season of 8 months. The sponge is viviparous with separate sexes, although the possibility of protandry cannot be ruled out.
Predators: The bumpy ball sponge has been found in the stomach of the queen angelfish, Holocanthus ciliaris (Randall & Hartman 1968), and it is likely consumed in at least small quantities by other predators as well. However, other studies have found that fishes that were force-fed I. strobilina exhibited paralysis and narcosis (Hoppe 1988a). I. strobilina and related species produce linear furanosesterterpene tetronic acids, which give the sponges a characteristic garlic odor, and may warn potential predators that the species is unpalatable and potentially toxic (Pawlik et al. 2002).
Associated Species: Like many other sponges, a variety of organisms can be found living in association with the bumpy ball sponge. The coral, Porites astreoides, and the sponge, Haliclona viridis, have been found along with I. strobilina (Wiedenmayer 1977). In Brazil, the tusked goby, Risor ruber, often lives beside or within the sponge (Rocha et al. 2000).
Individuals are frequently overgrown by other species of encrusting, branching, tubular, and turbinate sponges in reef areas where vacant space is in short supply (Engel & Pawlik 2005).
Economic Importance: Like many other species of marine sponges, I. strobilina produces chemical metabolites that are isolated, identified and studied for potential antifouling and/or pharmaceutical uses (e.g. Epifanio et al. 1999).
Engel S & JR Pawlik. 2005 Interactions among Florida sponges. I. Reef habitats. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 303: 133-144.
Epifanio R de A, Gabriel R, Martins DL & G Muricy. 1999. The sesterterpene variabilin as a fish-predation deterrent in the western Atlantic sponge Ircinia strobilina. J. Chem. Ecol. 25: 2247-2254.
Gammill ER. 1997. Identification of coral reef sponges. Providence Marine Publishing, Inc. Tampa, Florida. 117 pp.
Hoppe WF. 1988a. Growth, regeneration and predation in three species of large coral reef sponges. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 50: 117-125.
Hoppe WF. 1988b. Reproductive patterns in three species of large coral reef sponges. Coral Reefs 7: 45-50.
Kaplan EH. 1988. A field guide to southeastern and Caribbean seashores: Cape Hatteras to the Gulf coast, Florida, and the Caribbean. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, MA. USA. 425 pp.
Pawlik JR, McFall G & S Zea. 2002. Does the odor from sponges of the genus Ircinia protect them from fish predators? J. Chem. Ecol. 28: 1103-1115.
Randall JE & WD Hartman. 1968. Sponge-feeding fishes of the West Indies. Mar. Biol. 1: 216-225.
Rocha LA, Rosa IL & BM Feitoza. 2000. Sponge-dwelling fishes of northwestern Brazil. Environ. Biol. Fish. 59: 453-458.
Wiedenmayer F. 1977. Shallow-water sponges of the western Bahamas. Birkhäuser Verlag. Basel, Switzerland. 287 pp.
Apopyle: Outlet from a flagellated chamber to an excurrent canal in leuconoid sponges.
Archaeocytes: Large cells with large nuclei; phagocytic and play a role in digestion; also known to be totipotent, capable of transforming into other cell types needed by the animal. Archaeocytes serve a variety of functions from engulfing large food particles to transporting nutrients, and in some sponges, they play a pivotal role in reproduction.
Asconoid: A simple and tubular body plan characteristic of small sponges, not usually solitary.
Choanocytes: Cells responsible for moving water through the sponge and for obtaining food; ovoid with one end adjacent to the mesohyl and the opposite end projecting into the spongocoel and bearing a flagellum surrounded by a collar of microvilli.
Collencytes: Fixed cell of sponges that is anchored by long cytoplasmic strands; secrete dispersed collagen fibers, not spongin.
Incurrent Canals: Tubular invagination of the sponge pinacoderm that leads into the flagellated chambers.
Leuconoid: Refers to a type of sponge organization built around flagellated chambers and an extensive system of canals that increases the efficiency of water movement. The largest species of sponge have this body type.
Megascleres: Larger spicules forming the chief supporting elements in the skeleton.
Mesenchyme: See Mesohyl.
Mesohyl: A gelatinous, proteinaceous matrix that lies beneath the pinacoderm, containing skeletal material and ameboid cells; equivalent to the connective tissue of other metazoans; sometimes referred to as the mesenchyme.
Microscleres: Spicules that are considerably smaller than the structural megascleres.
Oscula: Plural of Osculum.
Osculum: Large opening where water exits the sponge.
Ostia: Plural of Ostium.
Ostium: A small opening perforating the surface of asconoid sponges; also called a incurrent pore, from which the name Porifera is derived.
Pinacocytes: Epithelial-like flattened cells which cover the outer surface, making up the pinacoderm.
Porocyte: A ring-shaped cell that extends from the external surface to the spongocoel, making up each pore.
Prosopyle: Internal opening of a sponge through which water flows from the incurrent canal into a radial canal or flagellated chambers.
Sclerocytes: Cells involved in the secretion of spicules in calcareous sponges.
Spiicules: Can be siliceous or calcareous and of various morphologies or shapes, including simple rods (monaxons) to more complex forms with three (triaxons), four (tetraxons), or more (polyaxons) axes. Spicules, along with spongin, provide structural support, and are considered to be an anti-predator mechanism. They are also a helpful diagnostic tool for sponge identification.
Spongin: A collagenous, fibrous protein that, along with the spicules, forms the “skeleton” of most sponges.
Spongocoel: Interior cavity of the sponge, also known as the atrium, into which water flows.
Spongocytes: Cells that secrete the spongin skeleton.
Syconoid: Radially symmetrical sponges that have a body wall folded into radially-oriented canals.